Here at HD Reach, we have created a glossary to help you navigate the world of Huntington's disease. This glossary is not all-inclusive, but we think it contains the most pertinent information.
|adenosine receptor considered to affect the age of onset of HD. It is currently being studied as a target for HD drugs.
|movements not typical of an individual such as chorea, dystonia, and unusual eye movement.
|written statement sworn to be true and used for evidence in court.
|positive statements that provide emotional support.
|forceful action or hostile behavior without provocation.
|state of restlessness, anxiety, or excitement.
|loss of ability to recognize objects or persons.
|prenatal sampling of amniotic fluid to test for abnormalities in development.
|healthcare services that support the primary physician such as speech therapist, occupational therapist, or physical therapist.
|an elevated emotional state which can be a healthy, natural response to a threat.
|a general term that encompasses many psychiatric disorders that stem from extreme fear or worry.
|indifference; suppression of interest, enthusiasm, or concern.
|programmed cell death to assist in development.
|neurological disorder caused by damage to the brain in which an individual cannot carry out certain physical movements even though they desire to.
|breathing condition caused by pulmonary aspiration.
|(1) breathing in a foreign object such as food. (2) medical procedure involved in removing something from the body.
|condition causing abnormal muscle contractions resulting in involuntary writhing movements.
|Only on copy of the gene is needed. Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant disorder. Children of someone who has Huntington’s disease have a 50% chance of inheriting the gene and the disease.
|area of the brain that is targeted by Huntington’s disease. Location of nerves used for coordinated movements.
|Huntington’s disease can greatly affect an individual’s behavior. Huntington’s disease can cause an increase in risky behaviors, irritability, and aggression.
|genetic process of attaching to proteins.
|mental health disorder that affects mood, energy, and activity levels.
|the administration of medicine or food all at once.
|the number of steps one foot takes in a minute.
|CAG trinucleotide repeat
|genetic disorder responsible for causing Huntington’s disease.
|involuntary movements that can affect speech, swallowing, posture and gait.
|genetic disorders caused by either an abnormal number of chromosomes or an abnormality within the chromosomes.
|the location of the Huntington gene.
|structure found in most cells that carry genes.
|Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
|early pregnancy test used to test if the fetus has inherited Huntington's disease.
|the observed symptoms of a patient.
|research studies that unveil new treatments, discover ways to detect diseases earlier, and assist in daily struggles of those with long-term illnesses.
|uncontrolled, rhythmic muscle contractions caused by a neurological condition.
|the process of gaining and retaining knowledge.
|Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
|psychological treatment with the goal of altering one’s mindset to view situations positively and respond more effectively.
|when an individual struggles to concentrate, remember, make decisions, or learn new things.
|disorders that are caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Genes pose a risk but other factors such as lifestyle and environment also play a role. Diabetes is a complex disorder. Also known as multifactorial disorders.
|typically performed after an analysis. They are used to confirm a diagnosis.
|the specific location of a gene on a chromosome determined by the pattern of bands that appear after the chromosome has been stained.
|mood disorder that elevates the feeling of sadness or disinterest.
|loss of inhibition.
|away from the center of the body.
|deoxyribonucleic acid. Genetic information for all living beings.
|slow speech caused by muscle weakness.
|dissatisfaction with life
|the uncontrollable contraction of muscles that results in repetitive movements. Movements include cramping of the foot, uncontrollable blinking, and speech difficulties.
|the ability to understand and share the feelings of another.
|an observational study for families with Huntington's disease.
|study of the distribution of diseases throughout a population.
|chemicals that overstimulates and exhausts neuron receptors.
|when a cluster of genes becomes bigger through insertion or repetition of nucleotides. Huntington's disease is caused by the expansion of the CAG nucleotide.
|Family Safety Plan
|strategies to ensure the safety of the individual with Huntington’s disease and their family. This may include emergency contacts, location of emergency services, and procedures for dealing with aggression.
|Gamma-Amino Butyric acid. the decrease of GABA results in chorea.
|unit of heredity, found on chromosome, made up DNA.
|process from genetic instruction to products.
|Gene negative results
|The abnormal Huntington gene is not present.
|Gene positive results
|The abnormal Huntington gene is present.
|specialized professional trained in assisting families with genetic medical conditions.
|disease caused by a change in the DNA sequences of genes. There are three groups of genetic disorders: single-gene, chromosomal, and complex/multi-factorial.
|the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next.
|trained medical professionals who assist the elderly suffering from emotional and mental issues.
|website dedicated to the communication of the latest Huntington's disease research to the public.
|study aiming to research the cerebrospinal fluid of individuals with Huntington’s disease.
|HD Drug Works
|website which reports the latest information on drug and treatment options for Huntington's disease.
|tool that uses an individual’s profile to find open studies and trials to join.
|Huntington's Disease Society of America.
|passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
|gene that causes the production of the huntingtin protein.
|a protein that appears to affect neurons and development however its exact function is not known.
|a gene located in everybody. The Huntington gene will only cause Huntington's disease if an abnormal copy is passed on.
|single-gene disorder that causes chorea, dystonia, and loss of cognition.
|single-gene disorder that causes chorea, dystonia, and loss of cognition.
|increased muscle activity, excessive movements both abnormal and normal.
|when movements overshoot the intended goal.
|so much muscle tone that it becomes difficult to move.
|reduced degree of facial expression.
|five strategies for dealing with uncontrolled emotions of behavior: ignore the behavior, change strategies, avoid triggers, redirection, and excuses.
|In vitro fertilization (IVF)
|fertilizing the egg outside the womb and then transferring the embryo to the uterus.
|easily frustrated, upset, or agitated.
|Juvenile Huntington’s disease
|Huntington’s disease that begins to affect an individual before they reach 20 years of age.
|study investigating how the drug Laquinimod may affect individuals with Huntington’s disease.
|services to assist in everyday tasks and activities such as care homes, nursing homes, or in-home care.
|a mental illness which causes prolonged periods of over-activity, delusions, and excitement.
|Mental health therapist
|medical professional dedicated to helping patients experiencing psychological distress.
|inability to sustain some voluntary movements such as keeping eyes closed.
|symptoms of Huntington's disease that involve movements of the body.
|a change in DNA that is the results of biological and/or environmental factors.
|doctor specializing in the nervous system.
|medical professional dedicated to treating medical issues which cause behavioral, psychological, and psychiatric symptoms.
|specialist who focuses on the functions of the brain.
|building block of DNA and RNA.
|long-lasting mental health disorder which causes reoccurring and unwanted thoughts that produce repetitive behaviors.
|therapist dedicating to helping patients achieve a satisfied state of being.
|the disordered physiological processes associated with disease or injury.
|area of the brain that is involved in cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior.
|Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
|a procedure occurring after in vitro fertilization but before implantation of the embryo in the uterus to identify genetic defects.
|tests to determine the presence of a genetic disorder before symptoms begin to appear. These tests are usually performed when a family member has a genetic disorder.
|proportion of people who have or are at risk of Huntington’s disease.
|initial phase of Huntington's disease where clinical symptoms have started but motor symptoms have not.
|Huntington's disease damages the brain which can lead to a decline in mental health. Depression, irritability, and apathy are a few impairments that Huntington's disease can cause.
|symptoms regarding the mental health of the patient.
|a symptom characterized by disruptions to a person's thoughts and perceptions that make it difficult to recognize what is real and what is not.
|inhalation of foreign objects into the lungs.
|behaviors that impact the safety of the patient.
|ribonucleic acid; carries instructions from DNA to create proteins.
|fast eye movement between one focal point to another.
|Share the Care
|not-for-profit organization dedicated to helping those who are caregivers.
|study testing the drug VX15 in early stages of Huntington’s disease.
|genetic disorder caused by only one gene. Huntington’s Disease is a single-gene disorder.
|Social Security Disability
|a program that pays monthly benefits to you if you become disabled before retirement age and aren’t able to work.
|broad term encompassing professionals dedicated to assisting individual’s in their lives and communities.
|sudden movement usually caused by the contraction of a muscle.
|Special care dentist
|dentists dedicated to assisting individuals with medical issues. They develop a comprehensive plan based on an individual’s medical history.
|professional dedicated to assisting individuals with speech, language, and other communication aspects.
|The early stage where the patient has received a diagnosis but is still full functional and independent.
|The early intermediate stage where the patient is still functional but at a lower capacity. Some assistance with basic function may be required.
|Late intermediate stage where the patient can no longer work or manage household responsibilities. Psychiatric and behavioral symptoms may become evident.
|The early advanced stage where the patient is not independent but can still live at home with the help of others. Assistance is needed to act on many activities.
|The advanced stage where the patient requires complete and total support from professionals.
|Subthalamic nucleus (STN)
|part of the brain involved in action suppression. In Huntington’s disease, action suppression can be impaired.
|disorder that causes jerky movements in the face, hands, and feet.
|relief from the symptoms of a medical issue but not a cure.
|Tardive dyskinesia (TD)
|side effect of some mental illness medications which cause uncontrolled, jerky movements.
|cognitive process needed to determine structure and spatial relations.
|study dedicated to testing the drug WVE- 120101 and its affect on Huntington’s disease.
|a variation of Huntington’s disease which causes juvenile onset of HD.